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Labelling of internal states in the self and dependants

27 July 2020

Previous research has shown that there are differences in the ways that adults perceive their internal states (such as heartbeat or breathing rate), and that this may be mediated by biological and/or social factors, with some evidence for a similar phenomenon in children. These differences may relate to how individuals label their internal states. Therefore, the aim of this current study is to investigate possible differences in how people label their own internal states.


  • Participants must be:
  • 18-60 years of age.
  • Identify as cisgender (their sex assigned at birth matches their gender identity).
  • Have English as a first language, or as one of their first languages if multilingual.
  • Have no known psychiatric disorders or neurodevelopmental differences.
  • Must not have visual or hearing problems (it is OK if you wear glasses or contacts or use a hearing aid).

Take part in this study


Ethical approval

The Royal Holloway Research Ethics Committee has approved this study following their reviewing procedures. We would like to stress that participation is entirely voluntary and you may choose to withdraw from the study at any time without giving a reason.

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Academic study

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